一、名词

Ⅰ、名词的种类

专有名词 普通名词
国名地名人名,团体机构名称 可数名词 不可数名词
个体名词 集体名词 抽象名词 物质名词

Ⅱ、名词的数

1、规则名词的复数形式:名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s-es。先将构成方法与读音规则列表如下:

规则 例词
1 一般情况在词尾加-s map-maps,sea-seas,girl-girls,day-days
2 以s,x,ch,sh结尾的名词后加-es class-classes,box-boxes,watch-watches,dish-dishes
3 以-f或-fe结尾的词 变-f和-fe为v再加-es leaf-leaves,thief-thieves,knife-knives,wife-wives,half-halves
加-s chief-chiefs,proof-proofs,roof-roofs
4 以辅音字母加y结尾的名词,变y为i加-es party-parties,family-families,story-stories,city-cities
5 以元音字母加y结尾的名词,或专有名词以y结尾的,加-s toy-toys,boy-boys,day-days,ray-rays,Henry-Henrys
6 以辅音字母加-o结尾的名词 一般加-es Negro-Negroes,hero-heroes,potato-potatoes,tomato-tomatoes
不少外来词加-s piano-pianos,photo-photos,auto-autos,kilo-kilos,solo-solos
两者皆可 zero-zeros/zeroes,volcano-volcanoes/volcanos
7 以元音字母加-o结尾的名词加-s radio-radios,bamboo-bamboos,zoo-zoos
8 以-fh结尾的名词加-s truth-truths,mouth-mouths,month-months,path-paths
2、不规则名词复数:英语有哪些名词的复数形式是不规则的,现归纳如下:
规则 例词
1 表示时间 today's newspaper, five weeks' holiday
2 表示自然现象 the earth's atmosphere, the tree's branches
3 表示国家城市等地方的名词 the county's plan, the world's population, China's industy
4 表示工作群体 the ship's crew. majonity's view, the team's victory
5 表示度量衡及价值 a mile's journey, five dollars' worth of apples
6 与人类活动有特殊关系的名词 the life's time, the play's plot
7 某些固定词组 a bird's eye view, a stone's throw, at one's wit's end(不知所措)
3、of所有格的用法:

用于无生命的东西:the legs of the chair, the cover of the book

用于有生命的东西,尤其是有较长定语时:the classrooms of the first-year students

用于名词化的词:the struggle of the oppressed

二、冠词

冠词分为不定冠词(a,an),定冠词(the),和零冠词。

Ⅰ、不定冠词的用法

1 指一类人或事,相当于 a kind of A plane is a machine that can fly.
2 第一次提及某人某物,非特指 A boy is waiting for you.
3 表示“每一”相当于 every, one We study eight hours a day.
4 表示“相同”相当于 the same We are nearly of an age.
5 用于人名前,标识不认识此人或与某名人有类似性质的人或事 A Mr.Smith came to visit you when you were out,That boy is rather a Lei Feng
6 用于固定词组中 A couple of, a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have a walk, many a time
7 用于 quite, rather, many, half, what, such 之后 This room is rather a big one.
8 用于 so(as, too, how)+形容词之后 She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet.

Ⅱ、定冠词的用法

1 表示某一类人或物 The horse is a useful animal.
2 用于世上独一无二的事物名词前 the universe, the moon, the Pacific Ocean
3 表示说话双方都了解得或上文提到过的人或事 Would you mind opening the door?
4 用于乐器前面 play the violin, play the guitar
5 用于形容词和分词前表示一类人 the reach, the living, the wounded
6 表示“一家人”或“夫妇” the Greens, the Wangs
7 用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高级前 He is the taller of the two children.
8 用于国家党派等以及江河湖海,山川群岛的名词前 the United States, the Communist Party of China, the French
9 用于表示发明物的单数名词前 The compass was invented in China.
10 在逢十的复数数词之前,指世纪的某个年代 in the 1990's
11 用于表示单位的名词前 I hired the car by the hour.
12 用于方位名词,身体部位名词,及表示时间的词组前 He patted me on the shoulder.

Ⅲ、零冠词的用法

1 专有名词,物质名词,抽象名词,人名地名等名词前 Beijing University, Jack, China, love, air
2 名词前有 this, my, whose, some, no, each, every 等限制 I want this book, not that one. / Whose purse is this ?
3 季节,月份,星期,节假日,一日三餐前 March, Sunday, National Day, spring
4 表示职位,身份,头衔的名词前 Lincoln was made President of America.
5 学科,语言,球类,棋类名词前 He likes playing football / chess.
6 与 by 连用表示交通工具的名词前 by train, by air, by land
7 以 and 连接的两个相对的名词并用时 husband and wife, knife and fork, day and night
8 表示泛指的复数名词前 Horses are useful animals.

三、代词

Ⅰ、代词可以分为一下七大类

1 人称代词 主格 I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they
宾格 me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them
2 物主代词 形容词性 my, your, his, her, its, our, their
名词性 mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs
3 反身代词 myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
4 指示代词 this, that, these, those, such, some
5 疑问代词 who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whichever, whatever
6 关系代词 that, which, who, whom, whose, as
7 不定代词 one/ some/ any, each/ every, none/ no, many/ much, few/ little/ a few/ a little
other/ another, all/ both, neither/ either

Ⅱ、不定代词用法注意点

  1. one, some 与 any:

    1. one 可以泛指任何人,也可特指,复数为ones。some 多用于肯定句,any 多用于疑问句和否定句。

      One should learn to think of others.

      Have you any bookmarks? No,I don’t have any bookmarks.

      I have some questions to ask.

    2. some 可用于疑问句中,表示盼望得到肯定的答复,或者表示建议,请求等。

      Would you like some bananas?

      Could you give me some money?

    3. some 和 any 修饰可数名词单数时,some 表示某个,any 表示任何一个。

      I have read this article in some magazine.

      Please correct the mistakes, if any.

    4. some 和数词连用表示“大约”,any 可与比较级连用表示程度。

      There are some 3,000 students in this school.

      Do you feel any better today?

  2. each 和 every:

    each 强调个别,代表的数可以是两个或两个以上,而 every 强调整体,所指的数必须时三个或三个以上。

    Each student has a pocket dictionary./ Each (of us) has a dictionary./ We each have a dictionary.

    Every student has strong and weak points./ Every one of us has strong and weak points.

  3. none 和 no:

    no 等于 not any,作定语。none 作主语或宾语,代替不可数名词,谓语用单数,代替可数名词,谓语单复数皆可以。

    There is no water in the bottle.

    How much water is there in the bottle? None.

    None of the students are(is) afraid of difficulties.

  4. other 和 another:

    1. other泛指“另外的,别的”常与其他词连用,如: the other day, every other week. some other
      reason, no other way,

      the other特指两者中的另外一个,复数为the others。如:

      He held a book in one hand and his notes in the other

      Two students in our class failed, but all the others passed the exam

    2. another指“又一一个,另一个”无所指,复数形式是others,泛指“别的人或事”如:

      I don’t like this shirt, please show me another (one).

The trousers are too long, please give me another pair / some others.

Some like football, while others like basketball.
  1. all 和 both, neither 和 either

    all 表示不可数名词时,其谓语动词用单数。both 和 all 加否定词表示部分否定,全部否定用
    neither和none.

    All of the books are not written in English / Not all of the books are written in English.

    Both of us are not teachers. / Not both of us are teachers. / Either of us is a teacher.

四、形容词和副词

Ⅰ、形容词

  1. 形容词的位置

    1. 形容词做定语通常前置,但在下列情况后置

      1 修饰 some, any, every, no, 和 body, thing, one 等构成的复合不定代词时 nobody absent, everything possible
      2 以-able, -ible结尾的形容词可置于有最高级或 only 修饰的名词之后 the best book available, the only solution possible
      3 alive, alike, awake, aware, asleep 等可以后置 the only person awake
      4 和空间、时间、单位连用时 a bridge 50 meters long
      5 成对的形容词可以后置 a huge room simple and beautiful
      6 形容词短语可以后置 a man difficult to get on with
    2. 多个形容词修饰同一个名词的顺序

      代词 数词 性状形容词
      冠词前的形容词 冠词
      指示代词
      不定代词
      代词所有格
      序数词 基数词 性质状态 大小
      长短
      形状
      新旧
      温度
      颜色 国籍
      产地
      材料
      质地
      名词
      all
      both
      such
      the
      a
      this
      second
      next
      one
      four
      beautiful
      good
      poor
      large
      short
      square
      new
      cool
      black
      yellow
      Chinese
      London
      silk
      stone
      分词 现在分词 doing
      having done
      being done
      having been
      done
      具有副词和形容词的作用
      在句中做定、表、宾补和状语
      过去分词 done
      动名词 doing
      having done
      being done
      having been
      done
      sb's doing 具有名词的作用
      在句中做主、宾、定和表语

Ⅱ、做宾语的非谓语动词比较

情况 常用动词
只接不定式做宾语的动词 hope, want, offer, long, fail, expect, wish, ask, decide, pretend, manage, agree, afford, determine, promise, happen
只接动名词做宾语的动词或短语 mind, miss, enjoy, imagine, practise, suggest, finish, escape, excuse, appreciate, admit, prevent, keep, dishke, avoid, risk, resist, consider
can't help, feel like, succeed in, be fond of, object to, get down to, be engaged in, insist on, think of, be proud of, take pride in,set about, be afaid of, be tired of, look forward to, devote oneself to, be worth, be busy, pay attention to, stick to
两者都可以 意义基本相同 begin, start, like, love, hate, prefer, coninue (接不定式多指具体的动作,接动名词多指一般或习惯行为)
need, want, require (接动名词主动形式表示被动意义,若接不定式则应用被动形式)
意义相反 stop to do 停止手中事,去做另一件事
stop doing 停止正在做的事
意义不同 renember/forget/regret to do (指动作尚未发生)
remember/forget/regret doing (指动作已经发生)
go on to do (接着做另外一件事)
go on doing (接着做同一件事)
try to do (设法,努力去做,尽力)
try doing (试试去做,看看有何结果)
mean to do (打算做,企图做)
mean doing (意识是,意味着)
can't help to do (不能帮忙做) can't help doing (忍不住要做)
### Ⅲ、非谓语动词做宾语补主语的区别 ###
常见动词 与宾语的逻辑关系及时间概念 例句
不定式 ask, beg, expect, get, order, tell, want, wish, encourage, have, notice, see, watch, hear, feel, let, make 主谓关系。强调动作将发生或已经完成 I heard him call me several times.
现在分词 notice, see, wawtch, hear, find, keep, have, feel 主谓关系。强调动作正在进行,尚未完成 I found her listening to the radio.
过去分词 动宾关系。动作已经完成,多强调状态 We found the village greatly changed.

Ⅳ、非谓语动词做定语的区别

区别 举例
不定式 与被修饰词往往有动宾关系,一般式表示将来,进行式表示与谓语动作同时发生,完成式表示在谓语动词之前发生 I have a lot of papers to type.
I have a lot of papers to be typed.
动名词 通常指被修饰词的用途,无逻辑上的任何关系 Shall we go to the swimming pool?
现在分词 与被修饰词之间是主谓关系,表示动作与谓语动作同时发生 the boiling water / the boiled water
the developing country / the developed country
the falling leaves / the fallen leaves
过去分词 与被修饰词之间是被动关系,表示动作发生在谓语动作之前,现已经完成

Ⅴ、非谓语动词做主语和表语的区别

区别 举例
不定式 多用于一个特定的具体的将来的动作,做主语时可以借助与 it 把不定式移到句子后面。做表语有时可和主语交换位置,而且意义不变,并且还能用 what 来提问主语或谓语 My dream is become a teacher.
To obey the law is important(dream, business, wish, idea, plan, duty, task 做主语时常用)
动名词 与不定式的功能区别不大,然而它更接近于名词,表示的动作比较抽象,或者泛指习惯性的动作,有时也可以用 it 做形式主语,做表语时可以和主语互换位置。 It is no use saying that again and again.
Teaching is my job.
分词 无名词的性质,不能做主语。但是有形容词的性质,可以做表语。多表明主语的特征性质或者状态等,可被very, quite, rather 等副词修饰。
现在分词多含有“令人..”之意.说明主语的性质特 征,多表示主动,主语多为物。过去分词一般表示被动或主语所处的状态,含有“感到..”之意,主语多是人。
The situation is encouraging.
The book is well written.
(常见分词有 astonishing, moving, tiring, disappointing, puzzling, shocking, boring, amusing 及其 -ed 形式)

五、名词性从句

种类 作用 常用关联词 例句
主语从句 在复合句中做主语,相当于名词,一般置谓语之前,也可用 it 做形式主语,主语从句放主句之后 that, whether, if, as if, as though, who, whose, which, how, when, where, why, what, whatever, whoever, wherever Whether he will come or not doesn't matter much.
Whoever comes here will be welcome.
表语从句 在复合句中做表语,相当于名词,位于系动词之后 It looks as if it is going to snow.
宾语从句 在复合句中做宾语,相当于名词 He asked me which team could win the game.
同位语从句 放在名词之后(news, problem, idea, suggestion, advice, thought, hope, fact 等)表明其具体内容 You have no idea how worried we are.
The fact that he lied again greatly surprised us.

六、状语从句

种类 连接词 注意点
时间状语 when, whenever, while, as, before, after, until, till, by the time, as soon as, hardly…when, no sooner…than, the moment, the minute, immediately, directly, instantly 主句表示将来意义时。从句须用一般现在时;while 引导的从句中动词一般是延续性的;until 用在肯定句中主句动词是延续性的,而否定句中主句动词为短暂性的。
地点状语 where, wherever
原因状语 because, as, since, now that because 语气最强,since 较弱,表示大家都明了的原因,as 又次之。
条件状语 is, unless, once, in case, as long as, on condition that 从句中动词时态不可用将来时,常用一般时代替
目的状语 so that, in order that, for fear that so that 和 in order that 后常接 may, should, could, would 等情态动词
结果状语 so…that, such…that
比较状语 than, as…as, not so/as…as, the more…the more
方式状语 as if, as though, as as if 和 as though 引导的从句一般用虚拟语气
让步状语 though, although, even if, even though, as, no matter what, whatever, no matter who, whoever, no matter which, whichever, no as 在让步状语从句中常用倒装形式;although 和 though 用正常语序,可和yet 连用,但不可和 but 连用

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